Apalachicola Bay Corexit Poisoning
WARNING: EXTREME ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD
In the waters of the GULF OF MEXICO at depths of 700 to 1,500 meters, 104.1 MILLION GALLONS of concentrated crude oil mixed with SPECIFIED AND UNSPECIFIED TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS is covering 60 PLUS SQUARE MILES of ocean floor.
This TOXIC OIL MIXTURE has created large areas of DEAD ZONES and is currently responsible for the DEATH OF MILLIONS OR BILLIONS OF FORMS OF MARINE AND AQUATIC LIFE.
WARNING: IMMINENT ENVIRONMENTAL DANGER. INCREASED TOXICITY TO ALL MARINE LIFE by contact to these LIFE THREATENING TOXINS AND BIO-HAZARDS. Contact to TOXINS by AIR, WATER (including rain)
WARNING: EXTREME HUMAN HEALTH HAZARD.
Due to the emission of TOXIC MATERIALS and GASES conveyed landward by AIRBORNE TRANSPORT, WATER TRANSPORT, and RAIN TRANSPORT the following HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS are potential effects on the GENERAL POPULACE and specifically those with PRE-EXISTING HEALTH CONDITIONS or IMMUNE DEFICENCIES.
The VAST majority oil from the BP oil disaster is STILL in the WATER. However, the oil is now a TOXIC BREW of oil and Corexit dispersant. COREXIT, is the highly toxic dispersant used by BP during the oil disaster. (And we have reports that the dispersant is STILL
being used, as the sightings of FRESH oil slicks on the Gulf shores are followed by planes spraying the waters and beaches.) The following information has been provided by the
OFFICIAL product safety data and government reports for Corexit:
RAPID DISTRIBUTION OF TOXINS TO ALL TISSUES OF THE BODY VIA THE BLOODSTREAM RAPID DISTRIBUTION VIA ABSORPTION THROUGH THE SKIN TO DERMAL LEVELS
Hemolytic Effects –
DUE TO TISSUE AND SKIN ABSOPTION:
The most critical direct effect as the result of exposure will be impact on red blood cells. It causes hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells) by dissolving the fat in the cell membrane and causing the membrane to break down.
Exposure can cause hematuria (blood in the urine) and blood in the feces. Blood appears in the urine as a result of kidney damage which can eventually lead to kidney failure. It is especially toxic to the spleen, the bones in the spinal column, and bone marrow (where new blood cells are formed) and the liver, where chemicals are detoxified (broken down for
easy excretion from the body). Chronic exposure can cause anemia, and lead to insufficient blood supply, cold extremities, and necrosis (a condition basically akin to flesh rot.)
Females may exhibit more sensitivity to fore-stomach necrosis, ulceration, and inflammation occurring at half the dose required to cause the same problems in males. Female fertility may also be significantly reduced due to embryo mortality.
Exposure can cause severe damage to the eye such as retinal detachment, photoreceptor degeneration and occlusion resulting from multiple thrombosis of the blood vessels in the
eye. Females are also considered more susceptible to ocular damage.
With few exceptions most of the evidence mentioned above was derived from inhalation studies. All of the studies used standard, high-dose testing protocols to detect obvious birth
defects and organ damage, cancer, mutations, convulsions, and skin and eye irritation.
No long-term, multigenerational, chronic oral studies at environmentally relevant concentrations are available that could rule out prenatal damage. Other potential effects:
“Defatting and drying of the skin and possibly dermatitis, as a result of prolonged exposure. Repeated or excessive exposure may cause central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthetic or narcotic effects, injury to red blood cells (hemolysis), kidney or the liver, and a metallic taste.
As temperature in Gulf Waters increase the rate and concentration of toxic and hazardous transport will increase as will toxicity of the chemical itself. It is advised that all precautions be taken to guard against exposure and severe toxic poisoning.
IS THIS ADVISORY BASED IN FACTS THAT ARE PROVABLE?
Does valid scientific data place oil/dispersant mix in large quantities suspended at the ocean floor? University of Georgia researcher Samantha Joye(JOY) says she and her colleagues have found oil as much as 80 miles from the Deepwater Horizons well. She says the latest sample was taken early Monday and the oil covered newly dead creatures, such as shrimp and deep-sea worms.
The scientists have collected at least 10 samples from the sea floor, about a mile down. Testing is needed to confirm it is BP oil. But Joye says it has the appearance of recent oil from the busted well, not old oil. Reporting her results from a fifth Gulf of Mexico expedition ending this past December, University of Georgia marine scientist Samantha Joye has been to the bottom and back, and her findings are anything but optimistic.
Her team has found numerous expanses of oil and soot covered sea floor that were “chemically finger-printed” as deriving from the BP Macondo deep sea well. The soot was the result, she believes, of the burning of oil, which then settled to the bottom with its load of toxic by-products. And, scattered throughout the toxic blanket: large numbers of dead brittle stars, crabs, and even suffocated tube worms.
Is the dispersant COREXIT a HIGHLY TOXIC and VOLATILE CHEMICAL that can affect HUMAN HEALTH?
Bo Liu B.S., Shanghai Fisheries University, 1998 December 2003
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of one oil dispersant,
Exxon COREXIT 9500 (9500), two crude oils, South Louisiana crude oil (SLC) and
Alaskan north slope crude oil (ANSC), and two dispersed oils, dispersed South Louisiana
crude oil (SLC+9500) and dispersed Alaskan north slope crude oil (ANSC+9500) to
three commercially and ecologically important species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico:
Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis, Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica and white shrimp.
Dispersed oils were more toxic than crude oils based on nominal concentrations In this study, the toxicity of dispersant to Eastern oysters increased with higher water temperature and similar effects have been found in other molluskan species. Ordzie and Garofalo (1981) reported that the LC50 for the dispersant COREXIT 9527 was 200 ppm at 20 oC, 1,800 ppm at 10 oC, and 2,500 ppm at 2 oC. Concentrations of dispersant that were not lethal to scallops during the winter caused greater than 50% mortality at summer temperatures. Report published in 1999 by the Alaskan Department of Environmental Conservation entitled: “Biodegradation of Dispersed Oil Using COREXIT 9500”
Our data indicate that dispersant may inhibit biodegradation of some components of the crude oil. At this point no data currently exist allowing evaluation of the effects of Corexit
9500 on biodegradation of the more acutely and chronically toxic components of crude oil. Following dispersant use, if the residual oil is selectively enriched in components of
greater toxicity than those components biodegraded, the toxicity of the resulting oil residue (on an oil mass basis) may be increased.” (pg. 25) Pubmed A bstract Author(s): Alan Scarlett, Emma L Smith, Johanna Nilsson, Martin Canty, Steven J Rowland, Tamara S Galloway
School of Earth, Ocean, and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA United Kingdom.
Use of chemical dispersants as oil spill clean-up agents may alter the normal behavior of
petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility, resulting in
increased bioavailability and altered interactions between dispersant, oil, and biological
membranes. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing
agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer to larval fish from primary levels of a
marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of
a model PH, [14C]naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay crude oil
(PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527(R) (DO) and undispersed preparations of the wateraccommodated fraction (WAF) of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary
producer, Isochrysis galbana; and a primary consumer, the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis;
and larval topsmelt, Atherinops affinis. Direct aqueous (AQ) exposure was compared with
combined aqueous and dietary (AQ&D) exposure.
Dispersants altered the uptake and depuration processes of naphthalene, independent of aqueous concentrations, in primary trophic species of a marine food chain. The amount of naphthalene taken up by topsmelt was initially significantly (Por = 72%) of naphthalene-derived radioactivity from fish tissue following all exposures was in the parent form, with smaller quantities of alpha- and beta-naphthols, alpha- and beta-naphthyl sulfates, and an unidentified derivative.
E E Mielbrecht, G J Schwartz, M F Wolfe, M L Sowby, R S Tjeerdema, S Singaram
Article Affiliation: ETOX, Applied Sciences-269, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The use of chemical oil dispersants to minimize spill impacts causes a transient increase in hydrocarbon concentrations in water, which increases the risk to aquatic species if toxic components become more bioavailable. The risk of effects depends on the extent to
which dispersants enhance the exposure to toxic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Increased salinities can reduce the solubility of PAH and the efficiency of oil dispersants. This study measured changes in the induction of CYP1A enzymes of fish to demonstrate the effect of salinity on PAH availability. Freshwater rainbow trout and euryhaline mummichog were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF), and chemically-enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAF) at 0 per thousand, 15 per thousand, and 30 per thousand salinity. For both species, PAH exposure
decreased as salinity increased whereas dispersant effectiveness decreased only at the highest salinity. Hence, risks to fish of PAH from dispersed oil will be greatest in coastal waters where salinities are low. Holdway DA.
Department of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, City Campus, Melbourne, VictGagnon MMoria 3001, Australia.
The biliary levels of naphthalene-type metabolites were over 15 times higher in fish exposed to dispersed crude oil relative to fish exposed to the WAF of Bass Strait crude oil. BaP-type metabolites appeared only in the bile of the fish exposed to the WAF, possibly due to BaP-type compounds remaining associated with the dispersant in the water column or to an inhibition of Phase II detoxification enzymes by the dispersant. Bile metabolites as determined by fixed-wavelength fluorescence and EROD induction appear to be sensitive and complementary biomarkers of exposure to PAH.
PMID: 10556373 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] COREXIT IS TOXIC TO ALL AQUATIC MARINE LIFE AND ADDED TO CRUDE OIL MAKES THE CRUDE OIL
IS COREXIT/OIL TOXIC TO HUMANS?
THE EPA WARNING FOR CRUDE OIL
Exposure can occur through skin contact, inhalation of contaminated air or soil, and ingestion of contaminated water or food. These can occur simultaneously. Exposure pathways may result in localized toxicity (e.g., irritation of the skin following contact), but most health effects are systemic because ingredients can move throughout the body. Exposure varies based on the duration and concentrations in contaminated media. Differences may result from location, work and personal activities, age, diet, use of protective equipment, and other factors. Concurrent exposure to other toxic chemicals must be considered when evaluating toxic effects. Some chemicals in crude oil are volatile, moving into air easily, and these can often be detectable by smell.
Basic Physiological Effects
Crude oil is a complex mixture of chemicals that have varying abilities to be absorbed into the body through the skin, lungs, and during digestion of food and water. Most components of crude oil enter the bloodstream rapidly when they are inhaled or swallowed. Crude oil contains chemicals that readily penetrate cell walls, damage cell structures, including DNA, and alter the function of the cells and the organs where they are located.
Crude oil is toxic, and ingredients can damage every system in the body:
1. respiratory nervous system, including the brain;
2. liver reproductive/urogenital system;
3. kidneys endocrine system;
4. circulatory system gastrointestinal system;
5. immune system sensory systems; and
6. the musculoskeletal system.
Damaging or altering these systems causes a wide range of diseases and conditions. In addition, interference with normal growth and development through endocrine disruption and direct damage to fetal tissue is caused by many crude oil ingredients (CDC, 1999).
DNA damage can cause cancer and multi-generational birth defects. Acute Exposure Hazards – brief exposure at relatively high levels. Crude oil contains many chemicals that can irritate the skin and mucous membranes on contact.
Irritant effects can range from slight reddening to burning, swelling (edema), pain,and permanent skin damage. Commonly reported effects of acute exposure to crude oil through inhalation or ingestion include difficulty breathing, headaches, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and other central nervous system effects. These are more likely to be noticed than potentially more serious effects that don’t have obvious signs and symptoms: lung, liver and kidney damage, infertility, immune system suppression, disruption of hormone levels, blood disorders, mutations, and cancer.
Chronic Exposure Hazards – long-term exposure at relatively low levels
This type of exposure should be avoided, if at all possible, because the potential for serious health damage is substantial. Chronic health effects are typically evaluated for specific crude oil components (see CDC, 1999), and vary from cancer to permanent neurological damage. They cover a range of diseases affecting all the organ systems listed above.
Children are vulnerable to toxic chemicals in crude oil that disrupt normal growth and
development. Their brains are highly susceptible to many neurotoxic ingredients. Endocrine disruptors in crude oil can cause abnormal growth, infertility, and other health conditions.
Children’s exposures may be higher than adults and can include contaminated soil or sand.
Newborns are especially vulnerable due to incompletely formed immune and detoxification
Many people with medical conditions are more susceptible to crude oil toxicity because
chemical ingredients can damage organ systems that are already impaired. Specific
susceptibilities depend on the medical condition (e.g., inhalation poses risks for those with asthma and other respiratory conditions).
People taking medications that reduce their detoxification ability, and those taking
acetaminophen, aspirin, haloperidol, who have nutritional deficiencies or who concurrently
drink alcohol may be more susceptible. Some inherited enzyme deficiencies also increase
susceptibility (listed in CDC, 1999).
People exposed to other toxic chemicals at work or home may be at higher risk.
Pregnancy places increased stress on many organ systems, including the liver, kidneys, and cardiovascular system. Chemicals in crude oil that are toxic to these same systems can pose serious health risks. Pregnancy also requires a careful balance of hormones to maintain a health pregnancy and healthy baby. Endocrine disruptors in crude oil can jeopardize the hormone balance.
The developing fetus is susceptible to the toxic effects of many chemicals in crude oil. Many cause mutations, endocrine disruption, skeletal deformities, and other types of birth defects.
Personal and Public Protection
It is critical that people who work with or around crude oil wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as gloves, masks, respirators, and water repellant clothing, to minimize exposure. The necessary equipment will depend on the kind of exposure that can occur (dermal, inhalation, ingestion). Susceptible members of the public require notice when exposure may occur (e.g., when contaminated air masses move inland) so they can take protective actions”
See OSHA guidance at OSHA 2010 link at the Sciencecorps web site (see above).
REMEMBER with the ADDITION of COREXIT Dispersant CRUDE OIL has been
shown to become 15 TIMES MORE TOXIC. PRIMARY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COREXIT
Propanediol- A primary ingredient in aircraft antifreeze and automotive anti-freeze. Mixture with heavy metals greatly increases toxicity. Potential Acute Health Effects:
Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant). Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (sensitizer, permeator).
Potential Chronic Health Effects:
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available.
MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Not available.
TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available.
DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available.
Repeated or prolonged exposure is not known to aggravate medical condition Ethanol, 2-butoxy http://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0275.pdf
! 2-Butoxy Ethanol may damage the developing fetus.
! There is limited evidence that 2-Butoxy Ethanol may damage the male reproductive system (including decreasing the sperm count) in animals and may affect female fertility in
! 2-Butoxy Ethanol may damage the liver and kidneys.
2-Butoxy Ethanol is a colorless liquid with a mild odor. It is used as a solvent for resins, lacquers, varnishes, and enamels, and is found in many hard surface cleaning products.
2-Butoxy Ethanol can affect you by ingestion and may be absorbed through the skin.
! 2-Butoxy Ethanol should be handled as a CARCINOGEN–WITH EXTREME CAUTION.
! Contact can irritate the skin and eyes with possible eye damage.
! Inhaling 2-Butoxy Ethanol can irritate the nose and throat.
! 2-Butoxy Ethanol can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain.
! Exposure can cause headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, and passing out.
! 2-Butoxy Ethanol may damage the liver and kidneys.
Workplace Exposure Limits OSHA: The legal airborne permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 50 ppm averaged over an 8-hour workshift.
NIOSH: The recommended airborne exposure limit (REL) is 5 ppm averaged over a 10-hour workshift.
ACGIH: The threshold limit value (TLV) is 20 ppm averaged over an 8-hour workshift.
! 2-Butoxy Ethanol may be a CARCINOGEN in humans.
There may be no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen, so all contact should be reduced to the lowest possible level.
! The above exposure limits are for air levels only. When skin contact also occurs, you may be overexposed, even though air levels are less than the limits listed above. These are only TWO of the KNOWN
COREXIT IS A COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL
For frequent or potentially high exposure (half the TLV or greater), the following are recommended before beginning work and at regular times after that:
! Liver and kidney function tests Any evaluation should include a careful history of past and present symptoms with an exam. Medical tests that look for damage already done are not a substitute for controlling exposure.
Request copies of your medical testing. You have a legal right to this information under the OSHA Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records Standard (29 CFR 1910.1020).
! More than light alcohol consumption can cause liver damage. Drinking alcohol may increase the liver damage caused by 2-Butoxy Ethanol
Children and the Elderly are Especially Vulnerable Exposure to crude oil in the air can cause difficulty breathing, headaches, dizziness, nausea, and confusion. Even brief exposure can cause health problems for people with asthma, COPD, and other respiratory problems.
Direct contact with contaminated water can cause skin damage. Delayed effects of crude oil exposure can include liver, kidney, respiratory, reproductive, blood, immune system and nervous system damage, cancer and birth defects. The occurrence and nature of harm will depend on exposure and individual factors, but some people are more susceptible:
Children are at higher risk for many reasons. Pregnant women are also at higher risk, and so are their babies. Elderly & those with health problems may be at higher risk.
Preventing exposure is the best way to prevent health problems. Be aware of odors and pollution alerts that warn of air pollution. Avoid contact with oily sand, soil, animals, plants or other materials. Vulnerable people in high pollution areas can consult their health care
providers about ways to reduce their exposure and remain healthy.
This handout does not provide medical advice. If you are experiencing any health problems, obtain local medical care as soon as possible. Michael Harbut, MD, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI Kathleen Burns, PhD Sciencecorps, Lexington
Studies have shown a direct correlation between water temperature and wildlife’s sensitivity to oil dispersants. The warmer the water is, the more toxic the oil dispersants
are to aquatic life. In studies, both grass shrimp and scallops were able to withstand significantly higher concentrations of oil dispersants in water at lower temperatures.
A 10 to 20C degree increase in water temperature dramatically increased their sensitivity to oil dispersants (George-Ares 2000).
Concentration of Dispersant
The higher the concentration of oil dispersants in water, measured in parts per million (ppm), the more likely it is for the dispersants to affect wildlife. Certain species can withstand very high concentrations of oil dispersants, while others show negative impacts at very low concentrations. Negative effects on particular aquatic species have been
shown to be reversible at low concentrations, but the higher the concentration, the more likely that the effects will be irreversible (Scarlett et al., 2005).
The maximum recorded concentration of oil dispersants in open water is 13ppm (Scarlett et al., 2005). Studies have shown that in many cases the oil dispersant concentrations are less than 1 ppm within hours of application (George-Ares 2000).
Geography and Type of Water Body
Areas where water is more stagnant or protected, such as estuaries, enclosed bays, and reefs, are more susceptible to high concentrations of oil dispersants than more open or large bodies of water. Without wave action and turbidity, oil dispersants have a lower
rate of dissipation (Scarlett et al., 2005).
THE PUBLIC MUST BE WARNED—
ALREADY IN THE GULF OF MEXICO LARGE AMOUNTS OF MARINE LIFE HAVE DIED
ALREADY PEOPLE UNASSOCIATED WITH CLEAN UP HAVE FALLEN SICK TO TOXIC POISIONING,
ALREADY PEOPLE HAVE DIED FROM TOXIC POISIONING FROM OIL/COREXIT EXPOSURE
A PROTOCOL FOR THOSE ALREADY AFFECTED AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR THOSE NOT YET AFFECTED IS BEING PREPARED BY MEDICAL EXPERTS WHO HAVE DARED TO BELIEVE THE TRUTH AND TREAT CHEMICAL POISIONING FOR WHAT IT IS Should you fall ill with these SYMPTOMS