film noir 黑色電影 cine negro
Film noir (黑色電影) (cine negro) is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood’s classic film noir (黑色電影) (cine negro) period is generally regarded as stretching from the early 1940s to the late 1950s. Film noir (黑色電影) (cine negro) of this era is associated with a low-key black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Depression.
The term film noir (黑色電影) (cine negro), French for “black film”, first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank in 1946, was unknown to most American film industry professionals of the classic era. Cinema historians and critics defined the noir canon in retrospect. Before the notion was widely adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic film noirs (黑色電影) (cine negro) were referred to as melodramas. The question of whether film noir (黑色電影) (cine negro) qualifies as a distinct genre is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars.
Film noir (黑色電影) (cine negro) encompasses a range of plots—the central figure may be a private eye (The Big Sleep), a plainclothes policeman (The Big Heat), an aging boxer (The Set-Up), a hapless grifter (Night and the City), a law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime (Gun Crazy), or simply a victim of circumstance (D.O.A.). Though the noir mode was originally identified with American productions, films now customarily described as noir have been made around the world. Many pictures released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noirs (黑色電影) (cine negro) of the classic period, often treating noir conventions in a self-referential manner. Such latter-day works in a noir mode are often referred to as neo-noirs. The tropes of film noir (黑色電影) have inspired parody since the mid-1940s.
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